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PREBIOTICS versus PROBIOTICS


Registered on 2018. 07. 03
While PREBIOTICS and PROBIOTICS sound similar, these supplements are very different and have different roles in the skin diverse microbiota community.

PREBIOTIC FIBER is a non-digestible part of foods like bananas, onions and garlic, Jerusalem artichoke, the skin of apples, chicory root, beans, and many others. Prebiotic fiber goes through the small intestine undigested and is fermented when it reaches the large colon. This fermentation process feeds beneficial bacteria colonies (including probiotic bacteria) and helps to increase the number of desirable bacteria in our digestive systems (also called the gut) that are associated with better health and reduced disease risk.

PROBIOTICS are live beneficial bacteria that are naturally created by the process of fermentation in foods like yogurt, sauerkraut, miso soup, kimchi, and others. Probiotics are also available in pill form and as an added ingredient in products like yogurt and health drinks. In addition, many types of bacteria are classified as probiotics, most come from two groups: Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium.

The following chart compares prebiotics and probiotics.

PREBIOTICS

PROBIOTICS

PREBIOTICS are a special form of dietary fiber that acts as a fertilizer for the good bacteria in your gut. PROBIOTICS are live bacteria that can be found in yogurt and other fermented foods. There are hundreds of probiotic species available. Which of these species are best for the average healthy person is still unknown.
PREBIOTIC powders are not affected by heat, cold, acid, or time. PROBIOTIC bacteria must be kept alive to be active. They may be killed by heat, stomach acid, or simply die with time.
PREBIOTICS nourish the good bacteria that everyone already has in their gut or skin. PROBIOTICS must compete with the multiple bacteria species already in the gut and skin microbiota.
Research has determined that supplementing with an oligofructose enriched inulin-based (OEI) PREBIOTIC fiber can be helpful with a wide range of conditions and disorders, including digestive disorders, obesity, bone loss and common skin disorders. Certain PROBIOTIC species have been shown to be helpful for childhood diarrhea, irritable bowel disease, and for recurrence of certain bowel infections such as C. difficile and common skin disorders.


The effects of prebiotics and probiotics on immune regulation and most common skin disorder such as acne

The earliest report on probiotics dates back to 1907, when Elie Metchnikoff described a correlation between the ingestion of lactic acid–producing bacteria in yogurt and enhanced longevity. Probiotics are live micro-organisms that provide a health benefit to the host. The role of prebiotics and probiotics in the management of disease, as well as immune modification, has recently experienced a renewed interest in society, as pre- and probiotics can be found in products ranging from yogurt to facial creams.


Immune regulation

Emerging insights into the interactions between pre- and probiotics and host receptors have demonstrated the ability of pre- and probiotics to modulate gene expression and cellular differentiation of the immune system. Although pre- and probiotics may exert their effect locally when applied or ingested, with their influence on immune regulation, their effects often extend to other organ systems. Evidence suggests that chronic inflammation and gut microbiota imbalance contributes to obesity, diabetes, cancer, depression, and skin disorders. Several strains of Lactobacillus demonstrate anti-inflammatory properties. The addition of Lactobacillus paracasei NCC2461 has been shown to inhibit neutrogenic inflammation in a mouse skin model.

Similar to Lactobacillus, B. coagulans has been shown to display immunoregulatory effects that could potentially impact the health of the skin. The incubation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells with the supernatant and cell wall fragments of B. coagulans promoted mature phenotypes of antigen-presenting cells and inhibited spontaneous and stress-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. ROS and oxidative stress play a role in acne, making this an intriguing finding with potential benefit for the acne patient

Disruption of skin barrier function is a known side effect of many acne medications including topical retinoids and benzoyl peroxide. The irritation, stinging, and dryness resulting from these medications can negatively impact compliance with an acne regimen. Rosacea and atopic dermatitis are other skin conditions in which the skin barrier is impaired, and symptoms improve when the skin barrier is strengthened. Oral ingestion of certain probiotic strains has been shown to improve the skin barrier and affect skin hydration and transepidermal water loss. Overall, pre- and probiotics modulate the development of the immune system, often shifting the immune response toward regulatory and anti-inflammatory conditions. This ability of pre- and probiotics to modify chronic inflammatory states suggests that pre- and probiotics may have a role in treating chronic inflammatory conditions, ranging from inflammatory bowel disease to reactive airway disease to acne, rosacea, atopic dermatitis, and photoaging.


Acne

Pre- and probiotics has been applied for the treatment of acne. Pre- and probiotics modify several factors in the pathophysiology of acne development and can potentially improve compliance as well. Pre- and probiotics have been shown to directly inhibit P. acnes through the production of antibacterial proteins. By decreasing the counts of P. acnes on the surface of the skin, pre- and probiotics target one factor contributing to acne formation. By inducing the production of healthy ceramides, it helps restore healthy fats, which can benefit acne directly and counter common side effects resulting from acne therapies.

Two clinical trials of topical preparations of pre- and probiotics have assessed their effect on acne. The first trial applied Enterococcus fecalis lotion to the face for 8 weeks; a 50% reduction of inflammatory lesions was noted compared to placebo. A reduction in acne count, size, and associated erythema was again noted during a clinical study of Lactobacillus plantarum 5% extract, although these findings were not supported with the 1% extra, suggesting the effects may be dose dependent. More recent studies evaluated the role of oral pre- and probiotics on acne. Although the designs of these studies are more difficult to evaluate, they suggest a potential role for pre- and oral probiotics as an adjuvant in acne therapy.


Aging skin and protection from ultraviolet light

Photoaging is manifested as wrinkling, increased skin fragility, and the presence of solar lentigos. Acute effects of UVR result from the direct effect of UVR on DNA and the modulation of the immune system through the release of inflammatory cytokines and, ultimately, immunosuppression. Aging skin involves a complex interplay between intrinsic aging, including genetic and hormonal influences, and extrinsic aging, which is subject to environmental factors such as ultraviolet (UV) light, trauma, pollution, infections, and cigarette smoking. At the molecular level, alterations in aging skin include an increase in skin pH, a decreased ability to quench reactive oxygen species, and increased matrix metalloproteinase activity. UV radiation is considered the strongest precipitator of extrinsic aging. As public knowledge has increased regarding the link between sun exposure and photoaging, interest in preventing and treating the adverse effects of UV radiation has escalated. Early studies suggest that pre- and probiotics and their metabolites might alter several aspects of skin aging.

Pre- and probiotic metabolism frequently produces acidic molecules, lowering the pH of the surrounding environment, as seen with Lactobacilli producing free fatty acids (FFAs) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) during the fermentation process. Therefore, the use of pre- and probiotics may work to restore the normal skin pH and consequently return protease activity levels closer to those seen in young, healthy skin.

Pre- and probiotics are emerging as a therapy to mitigate or prevent the effects of UV-induced skin damage. In hairless mice, the oral administration of Bifidobacterium breve prevented UV-induced transepidermal water loss compared to mice receiving placebo. Additionally, the administration of B. breve suppressed the UV-induced increase in hydrogen peroxide levels, oxidation of proteins, and xanthine oxidase activity in the skin. These findings suggest that pre- and oral administration of probiotics may at least partially alleviate UV-induced barrier changes and oxidative stress in the skin.


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